Rajputana

Rājputāna (Hindi: राजपूताना was the name adopted by British government for its dependencies in the region of present-day Indian state of Rājasthān.[1]Rajputana included 18 princely states, two chiefships and the British district of Ajmer-Merwara. This British official term remained official till its replacement by Rajasthan in the constitution of 1949.[1]

Contents

 

  • 1 Name
  • 2 Geography
  • 3 See also
  • 4 Notes
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Name

George Thomas (Military Memories) was the first in 1800 A.D., to term this region asRajputana. The historian John Keay in his book, India: A History stated that theRajputana name was coined by the British, but that the word even achieved a retrospective authenticity: in an 1829 translation of Ferishta’s history of early Islamic India, John Briggs discarded the phrase Indian princes, as rendered in Dow’s earlier version, and substituted Rajpoot princes. It was essentially the country of the Rajputs. Historian R. C. Majumdarexplained that the region was long known asGurjaratra early form of Gujarat, before it came to be called Rajputana, early in theMuslim period.

Geography

The area of Rajputana is estimated to be 343,328 square km (132,559 square miles) and breaks down into two geographic divisions:

  • An area northwest of the Arāvalli Range including part of the Great Indian (Thar) Desert, with characteristics of being sandy and unproductive.
  • A higher area southeast of the range, which is fertile by comparison.

The whole area forms the hill and plateau country between the north Indian plains and the main plateau of peninsular India.[citation needed]

See also

Notes

  1. a b R.K. Gupta; S.R. Bakshi (1 January 2008). Studies In Indian History: Rajasthan Through The Ages The Heritage Of Rajputs (Set Of 5 Vols.). Sarup & Sons. pp. 143–. ISBN 978-81-7625-841-8. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
  2. ^ F. K. Kapil (1999). Rajputana states, 1817-1950. Book Treasure. p. 1. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
  3. ^ John Keay (2001). India: a history. Grove Press. pp. 231–232. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0ISBN 978-0-8021-3797-5. “Colonel James Tod, who as the first British official to visit Rajasthan spent most of the 1820s exploring its political potential, formed a very different idea of “Rashboots”…..and the whole region thenceforth became, for the British, ‘Rajputana’.The word even achieved a retrospective authenticity, in 1829 translation of Ferishta’s history of early Islamic India, John Briggs discarded the pharse ‘Indian princes’, as rendered in Dow’s earlier version, and substituted ‘Rajput princes’.”
  4. ^ Sir Jivanji Jamshedji Modi (1930). Dr. Modi memorial volume: papers on Indo-Iranian and other subjects. Fort Printing Press. p. 521. “Rajputana was essentially the country of the Rajputs”
  5. ^ Asiatic Society of Bombay; Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Bombay Branch (1904).Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay, Volume 21. p. 416. “But this much is certain that Rajputana was essentially the country of the Gurjaras
  6. ^ R.C. Majumdar (1994). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 263. ISBN 8120804368ISBN 978-81-208-0436-4.

References

  1. Low, Sir Francis (ed.) The Indian Year Book & Who’s Who 1945-46, The Times of India Press, Bombay.
  2. Sharma, Nidhi Transition from Feudalism to Democracy, Aalekh Publishers, Jaipur, 2000 ISBN 81-87359-06-4.
  3. Webb, William Wilfrid The Currencies of the Hindu States of Rajputana, Archibald Constable & Co., Westminster, 1893.
  4. RajputanaEncyclopædia Britannica.
  5. Rajputanas.com.

 

Rajputana Agency

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rajpootana region – as depicted in the Map of India by Anthony Finley in 1831.

Princely state
Individual residencies
Agencies
Lists

The Rajputana Agency was a political office of the British Indian Empire dealing with a collection of native states in India (now inRajasthan, west of Jaipur, northwestern India), under the political charge of an Agent reporting directly to the Governor-General of India and residing at Mount Abu in theAravalli Range. The total area of the states falling within the Rajputana Agency was 127,541 square miles (330,330 km2), with eighteen states and two estates or chiefships.

Contents

Subdivisions

For the purposes of the British, Rajputana was subdivided into nine groups of states, consisting of three residencies and six agencies:

All of the states had Hindu Rajput rulers, except Tonk, which had a Muslim ruler, and Bharatpur Stateand Dholpur State, which had Jat rulers. The small British province of Ajmer-Merwara was also included within the geographical area of Rajputana, but that was under direct British rule. Although Rajputs ruled most of the states, they comprised a small minority of the population; in the 1901 census, of a total population of 9,723,301, only 620,229 were Rajputs, who were numerically strongest in the northern states and in Udaipur.

Other important castes and tribes of Rajputana were the Brahmins, who traditionally occupied the highest rank among castes, and were numerous and influential; the Bhats, who were the keepers of secular tradition and of the genealogies; the Hindu mercantile castesJains, who comprised the majority of the merchants; the powerful agricultural groups, such as the Jats and the Gurjars, the tribal peoples, BhilsMeenas and Meo. In the 1901 census, 7,035,093 persons, or more than 72% of the total population spoke one of the Rajasthani languages.

Economy

Rajputana Agency and Ajmer-Merwara province, 1909

In the time of the British Raj, the majority of the people were occupied in agriculture. In the large towns banking and commerce flourished. In the north, the staple products for export were salt, grain, wool and cotton, and in the south opium and cotton. The major imports included sugar, hardware and piece goods. Rajputana had relatively little industrial production. The principal manufactures were cotton and woolen goods, metalwork, ivory carving, and other handicrafts which were chiefly carried on in the eastern states. The system of agriculture was very simple; in the drier country west of the Aravalli Range only one crop was raised in the year, while in other parts south and east of the Aravallis two crops were raised annually, and various kinds of cereals, pulses and fibres are grown. In the desert tracts fine breeds of camels, cattle, horses and sheep were to be found wherever there is pasturage. Irrigation, mostly from wells, was almost confined to the northern portion. Rajputana was traversed throughout by the Rajputana railway, with its Malwa branch in the south, and diverging to Agra and Delhi in the north. Jodhpur, Udaipur and Bikaner had constructed branch railways at their own cost, the first of which was extended in 1901 to Hyderabad in Sindh. In 1909 another line was opened running north near the eastern boundary from Kotah to Bharatpur.

Rulers

Flag of Rajput

In northern India in the eleventh century, Rajputana was ruled by a number of dynasties, Chief of these were theHada of Bundi and KotahPratiharas, who ruled at Kanauj; the Paramaras of Malwa; the Rahavers of Tarangagadh; theChauhans of Ajmer; the Solankis of Anhilwara in Gujarat; the Guhilots with the Sesodia sept of Udaipur (Mewar); theRahtors of Marwar (Jodhpur); and the Kachwaha clan ofJaipur. The Rathore, Chauhan, Sisodia and Kachwahas ruled until Indian independence. These Rajput dynasties were gradually supplanted or subordinated by the Moslem invaders of the 11th century and weakened by internal feuds. At the beginning of the 16th century the Rajput power began to revive, only to be overthrown by the Babur, founder of the Mughal empire at Fatehpur Sikri in 1527. The clans were finally either conquered, overawed or conciliated by Akbar, except for the distant Sesodia clan, which, however, submitted to Jahangir in 1616. From Akbar’s accession to Aurangzeb‘s death in 1707, a period of 151 years, most of North India was under Mughal control.

Aurangzeb’s death and the invasion of the Marathas and Nadir Shah of Iran led to a triple alliance among the three leading Rajput chiefs, which internal jealousy so weakened that the Marathas, having been called in by the Rahtors to aid them, took possession of Ajmer about 1756. By the end of the century nearly the whole of Rajputana had been virtually subdued by the Marathas. The Second Anglo-Maratha War distracted the Marathas from 1807 to 1809, but afterwards Maratha domination of Rajputana resumed. In 1817 the British went to war with the Pindaris, raiders who were based in Maratha territory, which quickly became the Third Anglo-Maratha War, and the British government offered its protection to the Rajput rulers from the Pindaris and the Marathas. The Pindari were defeated, and the Afghan adventurer Amir Khan submitted and signed a treaty with the British, making him the ruler of Tonk. By the end of 1818 The Sword of Rever Dyansty again make war and in the history of Rajasthan this war is being remembered as victory of “Rahevars” with the East India Company. Maratha Sindhia ruler of Gwalior gave up the district of Ajmer-Merwara to the British, and Maratha influence in Rajasthan came to an end. Most of the Rajput princes remained loyal to Britain in the Revolt of 1857, and few political changes were made in Rajputana until Indian independence in 1947.

Overview

20 Princely States forming the Rajputana Agency[1]
Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901 Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of local political officer
Udaipur (Mewar) 12,691 1.02 million (ChieflyHindus andBhils) 24 Maharana,SisodiaRajput, Hindu 21 (including two guns personal to the then ruler) Resident inMewar
Jaipur 15,579 2.66 million (Chiefly Hindu) 62 Maharaja,KachwahaRajput, Hindu 19 (including two guns personal to the then ruler) Resident at Jaipur
Jodhpur (Marwar) 34,963 1.94 million (mostly Hindu) 56 Maharaja,RathorRajput, Hindu 17 Resident in the Western States of Rajputana
Bikaner 23,311 0.58 million (chiefly Hindu) 23 Maharaja, Rathor Rajput, Hindu 17 Political agent in Bikaner
16 other states 42,374 3.64 million (Chiefly Hindu) 155
Total 128,918 9.84 million 320

Notes

References

  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV (1907), The Indian Empire, Administrative, Published under the authority of His Majesty’s Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxx, 1 map, 552.

 

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